He was named Louis Dieudonné (Louis the God-given) and bore the traditional title of French heirs apparent: Dauphin. Marie-Thérèse gave birth to six of the king’s children, but only one, Louis, survived past the age of 5. Inside the walls of the opulent Palace of Versailles, France’s King Louis XIV died of gangrene on September 1, 1715, just four days short of his 77th birthday. After Napoleon, Versailles was relatively forgotten. It is considered to be the most important addition by Louis-Philippe to the Palace of Versailles. History's Elizabeth Charlotte, Madame Palatine, https://versailles-tv.fandom.com/wiki/Louis_XIV_of_France?oldid=10417, Louis XIV de Bourbon, King of France and Navarre. Additionally, the wooden structure gives the acoustics a soft but clearly audible violin-like sound. By 1677, Louis XIV had begun to lay the foundation for a more permanent move, and in 1682, he transferred both the royal residence and the French government to Versailles. The Royal Opera is constructed in an ovular shape, ensuring that all in attendance can see the stage. King Louis XV, great-grandson of Louis XIV, assumed the French throne at the age of five. He can be seen to have a strong personality, especially when he is butting heads with his brother. ThoughtCo uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. Louis XIV of France is the main character of the series. In 1804, Napoleon Bonaparte was coronated as the first emperor of France, and he immediately began the process of moving the government back to Versailles. Louis and Maintenon He is envious of this brother, Philippe's, freedom. During his rule, France was the most powerful country in Europe. He died in this room in 1715. Below are the additions made by Louis-Philippe to the Palace of Versailles. Petite trianon was commissioned by Louis XV for his mistress, Madame de Pompadour, who did not live to see it completed. Louis and Fabien The additions he made to the Palace of Versailles reflect these interests. The gardens of Versailles encompass nearly 2,000 acres and feature fountains, pavilions, statues, and an orangery. Continued Construction and Governance in Versailles. In a contemporary context, it is used for addresses by the president and to adopt amendments to the constitution. Louis XIV was born on 5 September 1638 in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, to Louis XIII and Anne of Austria. Learn about one of science's most intriguing geniuses. Because the expansive gardens could be overwhelming, Louis XIV would often lead tours of the area, showing courtiers and friends where to stop and what to admire. In 1682, Louis XIV officially moved his court to the lavish palace at Versailles, 13 miles outside of Paris. The Gardens of Versailles include a promenade that faces east to west, following the path of the sun in honor of the Sun King. His time at Versailles was short, however. His mother had experienced four stillbirths between 1619 and 1631. The edict led 200,000 or more Huguenots to flee France in search of religious freedom elsewhere in Europe or in the American colonies. At the time of his birth, his parents had been married for 23 years. Built as the private residence for the king within the Palace of Versailles, the king's apartments featured gold and marble detailing as well as Greek and Roman artwork intended to represent the king’s divinity. Sensing imminent death, Louis XIII decided to put his affairs in order in the spring of 1643, when Louis XIV was four years old. When he came of age, Louis began work on the family hunting lodge, ordered the addition of kitchens, stables, gardens, and residential apartments. Louis XIV, however, had a healthy libido and fathered more than a dozen illegitimate children with a number of mistresses. Versailles remained the center of government until the French Revolution. When France’s King Louis XIII died at the age of 41 on May 14, 1643, the monarchy passed to his eldest child, Louis XIV, who was just four years and eight months old. The wooden elements in the Royal Opera give the acoustics a violin-like sound. The fact that they do not see eye to eye made things difficult for Louis, but the smooth running of both Versailles and France were paramount to him. "View of the Chateau of Versailles seen from the Place d’armes in 1722” by Pierre-Denis Martin. Known as the “Sun King,” Louis XIV centralized power in the monarchy and reigned over a period of unprecedented prosperity in which France became the dominant power in Europe and a leader in the arts and sciences. From 1638 to 1715, King Louis XIV—the Sun King—reigned over France with absolute power. He does whatever needed to be done to make his country great. As a skilled medic, Louis admired said skills that she had for being a woman in that time period. In addition to the royal court, the 700-room palace housed the nobility that Louis XIV had brought into his sphere as well as the thousands of staff needed for upkeep. King Louis XIV’s 72-year reign, the longest of any European monarch, afforded him the ability to spend more than 50 years adding to and renovating the chateau at Versailles, where he died at the age of 76. Welcome to the most storied palace in the world, the glittering Château de Versailles. The Congress Chamber was constructed to house the new National Assembly and Congress, a reminder of the governmental power once held at Versailles. A portrait gallery made from the demolition of some of the royal apartments, the Gallery of Great Battles features 30 paintings that depict centuries of military success in France, beginning with Clovis and ending with Napoleon. Louis and Louise Credited as one of the great minds of the Scientific Revolution, here are a few interesting facts about the father of modern science. The Hall of Mirrors represents the enormous wealth of the French monarchy, as mirrors were among the most expensive belongings during the 17th century. So relieved were the royal couple to have a direct heir to the throne that they christened the boy Louis-Dieudonné, meaning “gift of God.” If the name alone didn’t give Louis XIV an inflated sense of himself, Mazarin also instilled in the boy the notion that kings are divinely chosen. Let’s start with the fact that the attitude toward hygiene was different back then from what we have now. Paintings depicting France’s involvement in the Crusades, including the arrival of troops in Constantinople, hang from the walls, and the entrance is marked by the Rhodes Door, a 16th century cedar gift from Sultan Mahmud II of the Ottoman Empire. Most of the furniture was either stolen or sold at auction, though many of the paintings were preserved and brought to the Louvre. To learn more about the life of the "Sun King," check out these seven surprising facts about the longest-reigning monarch in French history. King Louis XIV, the Sun King, spent nearly 50 years expanding the palace, and in1682, he moved both the royal residence and French seat of government to Versailles. He put his duties as a king first, but he also had a softer side when it came to people in his life, like Henriette. Hot water was considered a “substance” provoking the spreading of various diseases. In the 1660s, Louis XIV made a radical decision to renovate Louix XIII’s country hunting lodge and transform it into France’s new royal palace: Versailles. Biblical illustrations and statues line the walls, drawing the worshipers’ eyes toward the altar, which features a relief depicting the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. Princess Palatine (sister-in-law) Kingdom of France Napoleon never spent much time at Versailles, but much of the museum is dedicated to Napoleonic art, owing to Louis-Philippe’s nostalgia for the Napoleonic era. The king’s grandfather Henry IV granted French Protestants, known as Huguenots, political and religious freedoms when he issued the Edict of Nantes in 1598. The Grand and Small Stables, named for purpose rather than size, are visible on the left and right sides of this illustration. The Palace of Versailles was originally constructed in 1624 as a simple, two-story hunting lodge. Though the main function of the contemporary Palace of Versailles is as a museum, it also plays host to important political and social events throughout the year, including presidential addresses, state dinners, and concerts. Few musicians remain as beloved and revered as the late Bob Marley, whose music continues to inspire and influence music, fashion, politics and culture around the world. Louis and the Dauphin King Louis XIV moved his bedchamber, making it the focal point of the palace both inside and out. At the time of his birth, his parents had been married for 23 years. Louis and Henriette They dismantled many of the galleries established by Louis-Philippe, rebuilding the royal apartments in their place, and used historical records to design and decorate the estate in the styles of the monarchs who had once resided there. The Grand Trianon is only a single story to emphasize the connection with the gardens. The hall was originally constructed of two lateral enclosed wings, linked by an open-air terrace, in the style of an Italian baroque villa. Louis XIV was born on 5 September 1638 in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, to Louis XIII and Anne of Austria. The great stables housed the horses used by the king, the royal family, and the military, while the small stables housed coach horses and the coaches themselves. The Grand Trianon was built as a summer residence where the royal family could take refuge from the ever-expanding court at Versailles. Below are the elements of the Palace of Versailles that were added during the reign of King Louis XIV. By 1634, the simple lodge had been replaced by a more regal stone and brick chateau, though it still maintained its purpose as a hunting lodge until King Louis XIV took the throne. Henriette of England † (cousin, sister-in-law) Henry IV † (grandfather), Henriette † (ex-mistress)Soeur Hermione (sexual) Nymph (sex in his dream)Louise de la Vallière (ex-mistress)Madame de Montespan (ex-mistress)Adele de Vasseur (sexual) Madame de Maintenon (mistress) In 1624, King Louis XIII ordered the construction of a simple, two-story hunting lodge in dense woodlands about 12 miles outside of Paris. In 1837, the estate was refurbished and inaugurated as a museum. To remember FDR, who profoundly changed America with his New Deal programs, take a look at some fascinating facts about his life and legacy. Élisabeth of France † (aunt) The King’s and Queen’s Private Apartments (1738). Louis and Claudine's relationship remains neutral. A History of the Palace of Versailles, Jewel of the Sun King. After King Louis XVI was guillotined, the Palace of Versailles was forgotten for almost a decade. In defiance of custom, which would have made Queen Anne the sole Regent of France, the king decreed that a regency council would rule on his son's behalf. Marie-Thérèse gave birth to six of the king’s children, but only one, Louis, survived past the age of five. The Louisiana Territory became American property after the United States purchased it in 1803, and the state of Louisiana joined the union in 1812. It was later gifted by Louis XVI to Marie-Antoinette. Marie-Antoinette’s Hamlet featured Norman-style cottages, including one for her exclusive use. The only exception is the Hall of Plenty, where visitors could find refreshments. Various other women and girls, Louis and Montespan His reign of 72 years and 110 days is the longest recorded of any monarch of a sovereign country in European history. Here are seven facts about her fascinating life and complex legacy. Louis XIV built the extravagant Palace of Versailles. When Frenchman René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle claimed the interior of North America drained by the Mississippi River and its tributaries for his country in 1682, the explorer named it Louisiana in honor of Louis XIV. Pictured here is the outside of the king’s bedchamber, flanked by two wings of the Palace of Versailles. It was his mother who gave Louis his belief in the absolute and divine power of his monarchical rule. From this point forward, all gatherings of nobility, courtiers, and government officials happened under the watchful eye of the Sun King in his Palace of Versailles. By using ThoughtCo, you accept our. He was named Louis Dieudonné (Louis the God-given) and bore the traditional title of French heirs apparent: Dauphin. (After the death of Louis XIV, history repeated itself as his five-year-old great-grandson, Louis XV, succeeded him.). The famous painting “The Coronation of Napoleon,” which hangs in the Louvre, inspired the Coronation Room. Known as commonly as Louis the Beloved, the king was a strong proponent of Enlightenment ideas, including science and the arts. Versailles today is used to house symbolic meetings of Congress, state dinners, concerts, and other political and social gatherings. Beginning as a humble hunting lodge, the Palace of Versailles grew to encompass the permanent residence of the French monarchy and the seat of political power in France. Beginning in 1661, the king transformed the royal hunting lodge in Versailles where he played as a boy into a monument of royal opulence. Louis XVI ascended to the throne after the death of his grandfather in 1774, though the new king had little interest in governance. Reflecting that belief, Louis XIV believed any disobedience to his edicts to be sinful, and he adopted the sun as his emblem since France revolved around him as the planets revolved around the sun. Patronage to Versailles by courtiers dropped off quickly, fueling the flames of the budding revolution. The King’s State Apartments were rooms used for ceremonial purposes and social gatherings. Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 1638 – 1 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (le Roi Soleil), was King of France from 14 May 1643 until his death in 1715. The marriage between the two first cousins ensured ratification of the peace treaty that Mazarin had sought to establish with Hapsburg Spain. Biblical illustrations and statues line the walls of the chapel, guiding worshipers’ eyes to the altar. It wasn’t until the Revolution of 1830 and the July Monarchy that Versailles received significant attention. Instead he will turn his father’s hunting lodge into a palace; a temple to the gods, with himself as the sole authority in France. Henry VIII was crowned King of England in 1509. © 2020 Biography and the Biography logo are registered trademarks of A&E Television Networks, LLC. With the new king too young to rule over his 19 million subjects, his mother, Anne, served as regent and appointed Louis XIV’s godfather, Italian-born Cardinal Jules Mazarin, as chief minister. By the 1680s, however, the devoutly Catholic Louis XIV believed his faith should be the sole religion of his country. Here are some surprising facts. King Louis XIV, the Sun King, spent nearly 50 years expanding the palace, and in1682, he moved both the royal residence and French seat of government to Versailles. The Crusades Rooms were created with the sole intention of appeasing the nobility of France. Here are seven incredible tidbits about the superstar scientist. Louis has the crazy idea that he, as king, has ultimate power. Marie-Antoinette altered the appearance of the queen’s apartments several times during her reign. Louis XIV was 15 years old at the time of his coronation in 1654, but he did not wield absolute power over France until seven years later when Mazarin died. Marie Louise (niece) After the civil war known as the Fronde forced a young Louis XIV to flee his palace in Paris, the monarch took a dislike to the capital city. He did, however, make the concession of appointing her head of the council. But is this really true? Louis XIV eventually legitimized most of his children born to mistresses in the years following their births. However, the temperamental French climate made the terrace impractical, so it was swiftly replaced by the enclosed Hall of Mirrors. And he is adamant that he will not return to Paris. British explorer, diplomat and accomplished archaeologist Gertrude Bell has been described as "the female Lawrence of Arabia." On January 24, 1966, Indira Gandhi was sworn in as India's first female prime minister. The Royal Opera is the largest surviving court opera house. Common fact: Versailles during the reign of Louis XIV was a smelly place. The French central government remained in Versailles until the beginning of the French Revolution, when Marie-Antoinette and King Louis XVI were forced from the estate. Louis and Leopold House of Habsburg After the civil war known as the Fronde forced a young Louis XIV to flee his palace in Paris, the monarch took a dislike to the capital city. Mckenzie Perkins is a writer and researcher specializing in southeast Asian religion and culture, education, and college life. In 1789, Marie-Antoinette was in the Petite Trianon when she learned of the mob storming Versailles. Louis-Philippe commissioned the creation of a museum at Versailles to unite the people of France. Philippe Charles (nephew) Louis and Marie-Thérèse Louis and William Check out these seven surprising facts about one of the longest-serving monarchs in European history. The final structure of the Palace of Versailles commissioned by Louis XIV was the Royal Chapel. These mirrors reflect the 17 arched windows that look out onto the dramatic gardens of Versailles. As one of the most frequented attractions in the world, millions of tourists come to the Palace of Versailles annually to see the 120 galleries, 120 residential rooms, and nearly 2,000 acres of gardens. Recounting the most important historical, social, and cultural milestones of Versailles, beginning with the original proposal for a modest hunting lodge requested by Louis XIII in 1623, this volume encompasses the expansive property, from the palace and gardens to the Grand Trianon and the Queen’s Hamlet. He is the King of France and Navarre, the son of Louis XIII of France and Anne of Austria, the husband of Marie-Thérèse of Spain and the elder brother of Philippe. Mazarin served as a surrogate father to his godson and taught the young king about everything from statesmanship and power to history and the arts. The royal stables are two symmetrical structures built directly across from the palace, indicating the importance of horses at the time. Here are seven facts about the influential poet, novelist and playwright who captured the African American experience. After years of persecuting Protestants and constricting their rights, the Catholic king revoked the Edict of Nantes in 1685 through his issuance of the Edict of Fontainebleau, which ordered the destruction of Protestant churches, the closure of Protestant schools, and the forced baptism and education of children into the Catholic faith. Over the centuries, much of the art and furniture that was stolen or auctioned off has been returned to the palace. Allowing for more privacy and comfort, the King’s and Queen’s Private Apartments were truncated versions of the original royal apartments, featuring low ceilings and undecorated walls. Biography of King Louis XIV, France’s Sun King, Louvre Museum: History and Most Important Masterpieces, Biography of Louis XV, Beloved King of France, A History of the Women's March on Versailles, Biography of Marie Antoinette, Queen Executed in the French Revolution, The Rulers of France: From 840 Until 2017, Biography of King Louis XVI, Deposed in the French Revolution, Biography of Marie-Antoinette, French Queen Consort, The French Revolution, Its Outcome, and Legacy, The Many Roles of Women in the French Revolution, Industry and Agriculture History in Europe, B.S., Political Science, Boise State University. The French central government remained in Versailles until the beginning of the French Revolution, when Marie-Antoinette and King Louis XVI were forced from the estate. Take your favorite fandoms with you and never miss a beat. A network of paths open to pavilions, fountains, statues, and an orangery. Both Marie-Antoinette and King Louis XVI were removed from Versailles and guillotined in the subsequent years. Most notably, she ordered the construction of a rustic village, The Hamlet of Versailles, complete with a functioning farm and Norman-style cottages. Louis XIV's France was emblematic of the age of absolutism in Europe. The final room to be added to these apartments, the Hercules Room, served as a religious chapel until 1710, when the Royal Chapel was added. Various other children, Philippe of France (brother) Mistress Louise de La Vallière bore five of the king’s children, only two of which survived infancy, while her rival Madame de Montespan, who eventually became the king’s chief mistress, gave birth to seven of the monarch’s children. The Gallery of Great Battles documents France’s military success from Clovis to Napoleon. Europe’s grandest palace became a center of political power and a symbol of the king’s dominance and wealth. The apartments were later dramatically altered first by King Louis XIV, who annexed several rooms in the palace to create his royal bedchamber, and later by Marie-Antoinette. Charles II (cousin) After his defeat at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815, Napoleon was removed from power. Louis XIV was ultimately directed into a marriage that was a political, rather than a romantic, union by wedding the daughter of Spain’s King Philip IV, Marie-Thérèse, in 1660. Louis de Bourbon In 1701, King Louis XIV moved his bedchamber to the centermost point of the royal apartments, making his room the focal point of the palace. King Louis XIV, pictured here arriving at Versailles, commissioned most of the expansion on Versailles during his 72-year reign. Louis and Bontemps After King Louis XIV’s death in 1715, the seat of government in Versailles was abandoned in favor of Paris, though King Louis XV reestablished it in the 1720s. Renovations in the 20th century by Pierre de Nolhac and Gerald Van der Kemp sought to revive the estate. Today, more than 10 million people visit the Palace of Versailles annually. Louis XIII died in 1643, leaving the monarchy in the hands of the four-year-old Louis XIV. Langston Hughes was born today in 1902. The royal family was forcibly removed from the palace at the onset of the French Revolution, though subsequent political leaders, including Napoleon and the Bourbon kings, spent time in the palace before it was transformed into a public museum. The Hall of Mirrors is the central gallery of the Palace of Versailles, named for 17 ornate arches fitted with 21 mirrors each. (Painting: Charles Beaubrun [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons). The king’s first true love was Mazarin’s niece, Marie Mancini, but both the queen and the cardinal frowned upon their relationship. The Petite Trianon, gifted to Marie-Antoinette by Louis XVI. In the latter years of his 72-year rule, however, the succession of wars launched by the king ultimately took their toll on France and resulted in battlefield defeats, crippling debt, and famine. Fabien Marchal was Louis XIV's Chief of Police and functions as the King's eyes and ears both within and outside the palace. Charlotte Parthenay † (goddaughter). Versailles During and After the French Revolution (1789 -1870). So why does the Tudor monarch still fascinate us? He honored her work in particular when Henriette fell ill. Versailles Wiki is a FANDOM TV Community. His lack of faith in Queen Anne's political abilities was his primary rationale. Though they were all built in the Italian baroque style, each bears the name of a different Greek god or goddess: Hercules, Venus, Diana, Mars, Mercury, and Apollo. On his order, the prince’s apartments were destroyed, replaced by portrait galleries. Louis and Philippe Louis likes the finer things in life, and liked to use money to boast about what he could achieve - hence the building of Versailles. He wishes he could have the same, but being King is very important to him.
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